This is a step-by-step guide on how to perform liquidations on the Venus Protocol. Liquidations involve seizing collateral from under-collateralized accounts to repay outstanding debts. The instructions are targeted towards developers or bots that aim to automate the liquidation process.

Account Liquidity Calculations

Venus Protocol uses two calculations to determine account liquidity: Collateral Factor (CF) and Liquidation Threshold (LT).

Collateral Factor (CF)

Collateral Factor is the percentage of the supplied funds that can be used to cover a loan. Comptroller.getAccountLiquidity in the Core Pool and Comptroller.getBorrowingPower in Isolated Pools return the liquidity or an account. They use the Resilient Oracle to retrieve the value of the asset and the collateral factor for the market to determine the percentage of supply can be used as collateral. Relying on getBorrowingPower is not sufficient for identifying accounts in need of liquidation on Isolated Pools.

Liquidation Threshold (LT)

The Liquidation Threshold represents the point at which an account becomes under-collateralized, triggering the possibility of liquidation. In the Core Pool this is the same as the collateral factor. In Isolated Pools, the LT can be retrieved with Comptroller.getAccountLiquidity.

Liquidators often use external monitoring systems or other strategies to accurately identify under-collateralized accounts.

Iterating over all accounts and checking the CF and LT for every account is extremely inefficient.

Instead, liquidators should rely on off-chain computations and maintain an off-chain mapping for accounts and balances. Using functions like vTokenBalancesAll and vTokenUnderlyingPriceAll from PoolLens can help retrieve balances and prices efficiently for multiple vTokens associated with an account.

By combining the information obtained from these functions, one can accurately identify under-collateralized accounts that are suitable for liquidation.

Minimum Liquidatable Collateral

The Comptroller.minLiquidatableCollateral variable represents the minimal collateral in USD required for regular (non-batch) liquidations. Accounts with collateral below this threshold may not be eligible for non-batch liquidations. It's defined in USD value (18 decimals scale).

Finding Under-Collateralized Accounts

The first step to performing a liquidation is to identify under-collateralized accounts. Here's a suggested approach to finding under-collateralized accounts:

  1. Create a record of account balances: To identify under-collateralized accounts efficiently, liquidators can maintain an off-chain mapping of accounts and balances by indexing market events to detect new positions and update existing ones:

    • Mint: Event emitted when tokens are minted.

    • Redeem: Event emitted when tokens are redeemed.

    • Borrow: Event emitted when underlying is borrowed.

    • RepayBorrow: Event emitted when a borrow is repaid. By listening to these events, liquidators can track changes in positions and update the balances of users accordingly.

Consider using a subgraph to index these events.

  1. Get account balances: Use the vTokenBalancesAll function provided by PoolLens (VenusLens on the Core Pool) to retrieve supply and borrow balances for multiple vTokens associated with an account. This function takes an array of vTokens and the account address as parameters.

  2. Get underlying asset prices: Use the vTokenUnderlyingPriceAll function provided by the PoolLens (VenusLens on the Core Pool) to retrieve the underlying asset prices for multiple vTokens. This function takes an array of vTokens as a parameter.

  3. Calculate liquidity shortfall: With the supply and borrow balances obtained from step 2 and the underlying asset prices from step 3, calculate the liquidity shortfall for each account. This can be done by taking the scalar product of the balances and prices and comparing them against the LT values.

By following this approach, you can efficiently identify under-collateralized accounts based on the CF and LT calculations.

Please note that the functions mentioned above are provided by PoolLens and may require integration within your liquidation bot. Additionally, it's important to stay updated with any changes or updates to Venus Protocol that may impact the process of finding under-collateralized accounts.

Performing the Liquidation

Once an under-collateralized account has been identified, the liquidation process can be initiated using either liquidateBorrow , liquidateAccount or healAccount function. liquidateBorrow is provided by the relevant vToken contract (Liquidator contract on the Core Pool) whereas liquidateAccount and healAccount are provided in Comptroller. Here's an overview of the steps involved:

Please note that healAccount is an extension of the liquidation mechanism to address handling of bad debt and offseting it with protocol revenue/fees. On the other hand, liquidateAccount allows batches of liquidations in a single transaction. In both cases, the total collateral must be lower than the threshold Comptroller.minLiquidatableCollateral. Those two functions are only available in Isolated Pools. For Core Pool liquidateBorrow function provided by Liquidator contract is the only available mechanism to perform liquidations.

  1. Calculate the liquidation amount: Determine the amount of debt to be repaid and the collateral to be seized. This is typically calculated by examining the borrower's debt balance, the market's collateral factor, and any discounts or liquidation incentives offered.

  2. When performing the liquidation, there are 3 different types of liquidations that can be called, taking in mind the collateral, minimum liquidatable collateral and solvency of the account:

  • Collateral > minLiquidatableCollateral --> liquidateBorrow(): Call the liquidateBorrow function on the relevant vToken contract. This function requires several parameters, including the borrower's address, the liquidator's address, the amount of debt to be repaid, and the collateral to be seized. Refer to the vToken contract documentation for specific details on the function's required parameters.



  • Collateral Factor: 50%

  • Close Factor: 50%

  • Liquidation Threshold: 60%

  • Borrow Amount: $13,000

  • Collateral Amount: $20,000

  • Liquidation Incentive: 110%

  • Protocol Share Percentage: 5%

The borrowed amount is $1,000 above the liquidation threshold ($12,000), therefore the position is eligible for liquidation. Liquidation can be called with a repayment of up to $6,500 (borrow amount * close factor). Let's assume the liquidator initiates the liquidation process with a repayment amount of $1,000 Let's Calculate the Collateral Seized Amount (the amount that is seized from the borrower's collateral):

Collateral Seized Amount = Repayment Amount * Liquidation Incentive

Collateral Seized Amount = $1,000 * 1.1

Collateral Seized Amount = $1,100

Therefore, if the borrowed asset value reaches $13,000 and the repayment amount is $1,000, the total collateral seized will be $1,100 considering the liquidation incentive of 10%. In order to calculate what amount the liquidator will get we need to consider treasuryPercentMantissa (in the Core pool) or protocolSeizeShareMantissa (in the Isolated pools). This variable (Protocol Share Percentage) sets the percentage of the collateral seized that will go to the protocol. Let's assume that the protocol shares for liquidations is 5% and calculate the liquidator received amount:

Liquidator Receive Amount = Collateral Seized - Protocol Shares

Protocol Shares = (Collateral Seized / Liquidation Incentive) * Protocol Share Percentage

Protocol Shares = ($1,100 / 1.1) * 0.05 = $50

Liquidator Receive Amount = $1,100 - $50 = $1,050

In conclusion, the liquidator will provide $1,000 for the liquidation. After the liquidation, the liquidator will receive $1,050 and the rest $50 will go to the protocol.

  • Collateral < minLiquidatableCollateral && account is solvent --> liquidateAccount(): this function liquidates all borrows of the borrower.


  • Collateral Factor: 50%

  • Liquidation Threshold: 60%

  • Min Liquidatable Collateral: $100

  • Borrow Amount: $60

  • Collateral Amount: $90

Position is already eligible for liquidation since Borrow Amount >= $54. We should call liquidateAccount() because collateral < $100 and account is solvent.

  • Collateral < minLiquidatableCollateral && account is insolvent --> healAccount(): this function seizes all the remaining collateral from the borrower, requires the person initiating the liquidation (msg.sender) to repay the borrower's existing debt, and treats any remaining debt as bad debt. The sender has to repay a certain percentage of the debt, computed as collateral / (borrows * liquidationIncentive)


  • Collateral Factor: 50%

  • Liquidation Threshold: 60%

  • Min Liquidatable Collateral: $100

  • Borrow Amount: $90

  • Collateral Amount: $60

Position is eligible for liquidation and collateral is < $100, but the account is insolvent, so we need to call healAccount() to ensure that the remaining debt ($30) is treated as bad debt for the protocol.

  1. Handle liquidation results: After invoking liquidateBorrow, monitor the transaction's success and handle any resulting events or errors. Successful liquidations will transfer the seized collateral to the liquidator's address and repay the debt from the borrower's account.

Please note that the liquidation process involves complex calculations and requires a deep understanding of Venus Protocol. It's essential to thoroughly test and validate your liquidation bot before deploying it in a production environment. Additionally, keep track of any changes or updates to the Venus Protocol that may impact the liquidation process.

Forced liquidations

Usually, accounts are only eligible to be liquidated if they are under-collateralized, as described in the previous sections. An exception is if "forced liquidations" are enabled for a market or an individual account in a market. In this case, borrow positions can be liquidated in that market even when the health rate of the account is greater than 1 (i.e. when the account is sufficiently collateralized). Additionally, the close factor check is ignored, allowing the liquidation of 100% of the debt in one transaction.

This feature is based on the implementation done by Compound V2 here. Compound V2 allows "forced liquidations" on markets as soon as the Collateral factor is zero, the Reserve factor is 100% and the borrows are paused. Venus defines a feature flag to enable/disable "forced liquidations", configurable directly via VIP, not based on other parameters. Compound community talked about this feature in this post.

On Venus, forced liquidations can be enabled either for an entire market (all borrow positions in the market can be forcefully liquidated), or for individual accounts in a market (only the borrows of a particular account can be forcefully liquidated in the market).

To check if forced liquidations are enabled for an entire market, the function Comptroller.isForcedLiquidationEnabled(address vToken) can be called on the Comptroller contract of the pool with the address of the market. To check if forced liquidations are enabled for an individual account in the market, the function Comptroller.isForcedLiquidationEnabledForUser(address borrower, address vToken) can be used, providing the account and market address as arguments.

Availability: Forced Liquidations for entire markets are available in the Core pool since VIP-172, in the Isolated pools since VIP-186. Forced Liquidations for individual accounts are available only in the Core pool since VIP-210.



  • vUSDT collateral factor: 80%

  • 1 USDT = 1 BUSD = 1 USDC = $1 (for simplicity)

  • Close factor: 50%

  • Liquidation incentive: 10%

  • User with the following positions:

    • Supply: 500 USDT

    • Borrow: 200 BUSD

    • Borrow: 100 USDC

The health rate for this user would be (500 * 0.8) / (200 + 100) = 1.33. So, in normal circumstances, this user is not eligible to be liquidated.

Now, let’s say we enable the forced liquidations in the BUSD market (via VIP). Then:

  • Anyone will be allowed to liquidate the BUSD position of the previous user. Moreover, the close factor limit won’t be taken into account. So, the following liquidation would be doable:

    • Repay amount: 200 BUSD

    • Collateral market to seize: USDT

  • By doing this liquidation, 220 USDT (repay amount + liquidation incentive) would be seized from the user’s collateral.

  • After the liquidation, the global position of our user would be:

    • Supply: 280 USDT (500 USDT - 220 USDT seized during the liquidation)

    • Borrow: 0 BUSD

    • Borrow: 100 USDC

  • So, the new health rate would be (280 * 0.8 / 100) = 2.24. They will be still ineligible for regular liquidations

  • Because the forced liquidation is not enabled in the USDC market, the USDC debt cannot be liquidated (because the health rate is greater than 1).

Force VAI Debt First

This feature is disabled. Liquidators will have to change their codebase to consider the forced sequence of liquidations when there is a VAI debt. After having the confirmation from the main Liquidators that they have adapted their code, a VIP will be proposed to enable this feature.

In the previous section, liquidations are carried out on all accounts without taking into consideration specific amounts of VAI debt. The forceVAILiquidate feature enhances the liquidation process by forcing liquidations of borrowers with VAI debt greater than minLiquidatableVAI. Forcing VAI liquidations allows the protocol to better manage risk and prevent potential losses due to excessive VAI debt accumulation.

For borrowers with outstanding VAI debt, the force VAI liquidation first includes checks to ensure that only eligible accounts are liquidated before starting the liquidation process.


  1. Check that VAI liquidations are not paused in Comptroller.

  2. The forceVAILiquidate flag is set to true.

  3. Verify whether the borrower's VAI debt is greater than the minimum amount of liquidatable VAI (initially 1,000 VAI).

If the above conditions are true then the protocol checks that the current vToken sent to be liquidated is VAI, otherwise the liquidation fails.

Example 1


  • this feature is enabled

  • a user is eligible to be liquidated with the following debt:

    • 2,000 VAI

    • 5,000 USDT

Liquidators will be required to liquidate the VAI position first because it is greater than minLiquidatableVAI. If they try to liquidate first the USDT position, the liquidation transaction will be reverted.

Example 2


  • this feature is enabled

  • a user eligible to be liquidated with the following debts:

    • 500 VAI

    • 5,000 USDT

Liquidators will be allowed to liquidate first the VAI position or the USDT position. Both liquidations will work because the VAI debt is less than minLiquidatableVAI

Automatic Income Allocation

In the Core Pool, liquidation income is transferred to the Liquidator contract in the form of vTokens. During a liquidation transaction, the Liquidator contract will try to redeem the protocol's portion of the liquidation incentive in vTokens for the underlying tokens. If the redemption process is successful, the underlying tokens will be sent to the ProtocolShareReserve contract. However, if the redemption fails the underlying tokens will be added to a list of pending redemptions and the Liquidator contract will try to redeem the pending redemptions again in subsequent liquidation transactions.

Distributing Seized Amount

The seized collateral is distributed between the Liquidator and the ProtocolShareReserve contract:

  1. Liquidator's Share:

    • The Liquidator receives a designated portion of the collateral as an incentive.

  2. ProtocolShareReserve contract's Share:

    • The remaining portion of the collateral is sent to the ProtocolShareReserve contract.

  3. Conversion (if applicable):

    • BNB:

      • If the seized collateral is BNB, it is converted to Wrapped BNB (wBNB) before sending it to the ProtocolShareReserve contract.

    • Other VTokens:

      • For other VTokens, the underlying tokens are redeemed and transferred to the ProtocolShareReserve contract.

Redemption Handling

The Liquidator contract attempts to redeem the protocol's portion of the liquidation incentive in underlying tokens for the VTokens:

  1. Successful Redemption:

    • If the redemption is successful, the underlying tokens are sent to the ProtocolShareReserve contract.

  2. Failed Redemption:

    • If the redemption fails due to insufficient liquidity or other reasons, the VTokens representing the pending redemption are added to a list for later processing.

Pending Redemption Management

Subsequent liquidation transactions leverage the list of pending redemptions: during each liquidation, the Liquidator contract attempts to redeem pending VTokens for their underlying tokens, and send these underlying tokens to the ProtocolShareReserve contract.

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